Critically Discuss the Employment Impacts of FDI upon China
China attracted a record $52.7bn (;32.9bn) in foreign direct investment (hereby referred to as;FDI;) in 2002. The Chinese government made it easier for foreign companies to expand in China and entry into the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 2001 has resulted in liberalisation in some industries. A United Nations report has indicated China will become the top recipient of foreign director investment (FDI), overtaking the US. The state media reported that China expected to attract about $100bn in FDI a year between 2006 to 2010 (BBC, 2003a).
With inflation low, labour cheap and plentiful, urbanisation driving demand, and a savings rate of 30% providing easy capital, China is a manufacturer’s dream. No wonder the Pearl River Delta in the south-east of the country, once a rural backwater dominated by rice paddies, has turned into the world’s factory floor (BBC, 2004).
Chinese urban growth is unique, large and complex, and has provoked much scholarship. Before the period of economic reforms, China seemed to be in a stage of under-urbanization. By previous assessments, its urban development has been greatly influenced by national political ideologies and development strategies. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, the Chinese urban system has experienced spectacular growth, accompanied by a rapid rise of urbanization levels from about 20% to more than 36%. In the 1980s, in the face of strong pressures for urban in-migration due to the relaxation of rural-urban migration control, policy was strictly controlling the size of large cities, rationally developing medium-sized cities, and vigorously developing small cities. However, in reality, China;s policy of controlling large city growth has not been effectively implemented, and large cities grew at a much faster pace in the past decade. Large city growth remains appreciable, due largely to…
There is very little doubt that a'true' war is one of the most economically sound events in which a government could participate. War is good for business. Excluding the enormous cost of life and other social and political ramifications, war is one of the best things that can happen to a society. Both Malthaus and Marx argue that capitalist societies require war to survive and expand.Throughout history there are many examples of how wars have stimulated economies and created new avenues of development for industry. In fact much of the development of countries such as the United States, happened during and directly after wars.Erik Janeway insists that "War had been the direct and immediate cause of America's cycles of expansion.
War has become an increasingly good opportunity for businesses and government. This was particularly so after the employment of Keynes' economic theories in World War Two. Keynes suggested that in order to stimulate an economy, there must be an increase in deficits.After this increase in deficits, more and more employment will be created, spending will increase and the wealth and more importantly industry of the country will increase. This is actually the basic model of a wartime economy. As soon as a government becomes aware of a conflict or a threat to national security, it begins to allocate large amounts of money to weapons and other defence measurements. Demand for weaponry and defence machinery is usually greater than'peacetime' arms industry can cope with, and expansion of industry occurs, and naturally the rate of unemployment drops. There is also room for technological development, as the government is evidently eager to create newer, more technologically advanced weaponry that will destroy the enemy. With so much extra spending,'wartime' economies begin to boom. More people are in employment, not only through industry expansion but also throu…
For many years, Aboriginal people in Canada and Mexico have fought for political sovereignty and self-government. While Canada and Mexico are two different countries with two different cultures and histories, the Aboriginal people's fight in both countries is strikingly similar. Both groups of people have been fighting a war against assimilation and the utter destruction of their culture. While some groups have lost parts of their culture to absorption, these Aboriginals strive to preserve or regain any parts of their heritage that they can. They have been overwhelmed by European colonies and societies and have come under their rule. Aboriginal people in Canada and Mexico are expected to live under Canadian or Mexican government when they are a different people than those who attempt to preside over them. These Aboriginal people have to come to believe that the respective governments should grant autonomy and that they should be able to be their own separate entity within the already established borders of Canada and Mexico.
Learning about Canada's history lends some background on how the native peoples there became repressed. Surprisingly enough, European settlers and explorersfirst treated the Natives of North America as a sovereign nation, completely equal in law. Relations between Europeans and Natives varied from friendly trades to hostile battles, yet the Natives were never defeated or surrendered in any way. Conversely, many Indian groups did end up signing treaties with Europeans that would continue to haunt them for generations to come. Once the Natives came under settler rule, the Europeans planned that "eventually find a place for Aboriginals in the social contract" (8). Still, this posed a problem for both groups because European settlers could not see the Aboriginal people as fit for inclusion in their society. Instead Indians were seen as a primitive civilization with no rights to citizenship. So…
Victor Hugo was born in Besancon in 1802.He was the son of an army general and a conservative mother. Most of his childhood was spent pursuing the campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars. When Hugo was 16, his parents separated and Hugo went to live with his mother in Paris.He was both privately educated and attended public school.Hugo was an intelligent child and developed a gift for writing early.In early adolescence, he began to write verse tragedies and poetry and translated Virgil.Odes Et Poesies Diverses was Hugofirst collection of poetry and it earned Hugo a royal pension of 3,000 francs a year from Louis XVIII.Hugo continued to receive attention from French Kings.At the age of 23, he was invested as a Chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur.In 1823, Hugo made his debut as a novelist with Han D'Islande along with Bug-Jargal in 1826.By this time, Hugo had already married Adele Foucher and had a young child.
In the preface to Hugo's historical drama Cromwell (1827), Hugo pleaded from freedom from classical restrictions.This plea was quickly made the manifesto of the romantic school.Censors banned Hugo's second drama in 1829, Marion de Lorme.The drama was based on the life of a 17th century French courtesan.Hugo responded to the ban with Hernani, a poetic drama that was unlike the conventions of the French theater.This drama caused a riot between the classicists and the romanticists.Hugo's next work was The Hunchback of Notre Dame and it was an instant success.The novel is set in 15th century Paris and is about a gypsy, Esmeralda, and a deformed bell ringer, Quasimodo, and his love for her.
Around this time, Hugo met Juilette Drouer, an actress.She was Hugo's mistress for the following 50 years.She was not Hugo's only mistress but she was his most loyal.She wrote him at least a letter a day and never lived farther than walking distance from hi
Thefirst painting I chose at the museum was an oil painting on canvas. It depicted a women and child in a very informal setting. The woman was tenderly holding a small child on her lap, while bathing her.
I was drawn to the piece from across the room, by the soft, glowing toddler. The child was clothed only in a small white towel and her ivory skin seemed to glow against a muted background and it wasn't until I was very close to the painting that I even realized that there was another form in the composition.
As I studied the painting further my eyes were drawn in the direction of the eyes of the two figures and it was then that I noticed the strong lines of the woman's hands. They were a little out of proportion for a woman; they had an almost masculine quality. Yet against the soft rounded lines of the child's thigh there was a tenderness that was almost palatable. After reading the plaque next to this painting I learned that this artist used more masculine hands on all of her paintings of women and children to emphasize them. I think that it not only accomplishes that but the contrast between the strong lines and soft flowing lines leads to a feeling of stability.
The combination of the muted colors, strong solid lines of the mother's hands, and the soft organic lines of the child all lead to a very peaceful, moving, tender portrayal of a mother and child.
When reading two articles that are decades apart, one sees that the nation's, as a whole, opinion has changed about immigrants.In an article from 1905 the South wanted immigrants because they were cheap labor.Almost 80 years later, in 1983, the South had a different opinion about immigrants.In his 1905 article, "Immigration and the South," Robert DeCoury Ward just begins to touch on the idea that immigrants could be bad for America's economy.On the contrary, the 1983 article, "Immigration:How It's Affecting US," James Fallows bluntly tells of immigration being harmful to the U.S. economy.
When Robert DeCoury Ward wrote his article "Immigration and the South," it was during a time when there was a heavy flow of immigrants to the North and the South was just beginning to receive immigrants.The North was clearly growing tired of the immigrants, yet the South welcomed them.
For example, he stated, "The North finds itself greatly burdened with the many problems which have grown out of, or have at least been greatly aggravated by immigration." He then goes on to say the following, "The South is developing a newborn zeal for immigration." These two statements clearly show the opinions of the American people during this time in the 20th century.There are a few prime reasons for the South's "new zeal" for immigration.First of all, the rapid growth of manufacturing resulted in a demand for thousands of new workmen.This was a need that the native population of America could not meet.Second, with the newly freed Negroes asking for higher wages and more vacation, landowners needed cheaper workers, which is exactly what the immigrants were.One other key reason, and maybe the one that standouts the most, is that the South had not really experienced immigration ye
The day after the American plane bombed the Chinese embassy in Yugoslavia, our core teacher took one whole period telling us how bad the United States was, and how we should never bow down to them. Every student in my class including myself was furious. One year after, the tragedy was written in our textbook. I read the passage about the evilness of the United States to my uncle with anger and patriotism on the phone. He said nothing, just sighed. That year, he was in America.
A few years later, I was in Canada, a completely different world that turned my beliefs completely upset down, and put me into total confusion. Living in Canada has made me look at the world from a different perspective. When I was in China, my teachers and the news were my only two sources of politics. In other words, I only knew what the Chinese government wanted everyone to know.
In the past, I always thought Tibet was just a one of China's provinces, it was trying to be separated from us, and Dalai Lama was the bad person who caused it. The idea had never budged in my mind, until the day I received my world religions textbook. On the timeline of the chapter of Buddhism, it clearly stated that, "1989 CE Dalai Lama receives Nobel peace prize." I was shocked. Why would an evil person who was trying to separate brothers of the same family like him receive a peace prize? Was the world crazy? After I read Dalai Lama's profile, another sentence shocked me even more—"the Chinese took complete control of Tibet". What did they mean by took complete control? They were apart of us! They were in control the whole time! I knew some Canadians believed that China invaded Tibet, but I never could have thought that it would be included in a textbook. More sense came into me after. This was a Canadian textbook, unlike Japan, Canadians should not falsify it, but if they did not, did that mean they were telling the fact? And China invaded Tib
In Canada, Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second Monday of October. Thefirst Canadian Thanksgiving was celebrated on April 15, 1872 in thanks of the recovery of the future King Edward VII from a serious illness. But the major reason why Canadians celebrated Thanksgiving is because we are thankful for a successful harvest. The harvest season falls earlier in Canada than the United States, simply because Canada is further north. Harvest celebrations have been around for a long time. Ever since the veryfirst harvest, about 2000 years ago, people have been thankful for a very prosperous bounty. In 1957, Parliament announced that on the second Monday in October that Thanksgiving would be "a day of general thanksgiving to almighty God for the bountiful harvest with which Canada has been blessed." During the American Revolution, Americans who were still loyal to England and the crown moved to Canada and brought over with them the traditional Thanksgiving rituals that were associated with an American Thanksgiving. Because of this, Canadian and American Thanksgiving have many characteristics and traditions that are very similar to each other. For example the tradition of the cornucopia and serving pumpkin pie are customs that both, American and Canadian Thanksgiving follow. The custom of serving turkey at the Thanksgiving table is widely debated. Some say that duck/goose was served at thefirst Thanksgiving, some say turkey, and some say venison was served at thefirst Thanksgiving. It doesn't really matter what you serve at your Thanksgiving table, as long as you are thankful to God for all that you have been blessed with and for all the good that has happened in your life so far.
Today’s Western religions revolve around a central God that is one and the same for all of the followers of that religion.For instance, a Catholic goes to Church and prays to the same God as the person sitting beside them.There are many Eastern religions where that is not the case.Buddhism, one of the world’s oldest religions, is one such instance.Buddhism, in fact, stresses a more individual approach to spirituality.
In 563 B.C., in India, a man named Siddartha Guatama was born intothe ruling family of the Sakya people.Because of his elevated position in society he was forced to live a life of seclusion.When he was twenty-nine years old, he ventured out into the world and was confronted with the reality of suffering and death in the world.The next day he left his wife and son to search for a way to put an end to human suffering.After six years of living ascetically, he realized that the path to success and enlightenment was neither of the extremes of vast material possessions or the lack thereof , but a balance between the two.He called this the Middle Way.By the time he was thirty-five, Siddartha had achieved true enlightenment and earned the title Buddha(awakened one).He was the fourth man recorded to have done so, but is credited with the creation of the Buddhist religion.Today Buddhism is one of the most commonly practiced Eastern religions.It is also one of the most misunderstood.Its characteristics are simple and strive only for spiritual enlightenment.
The critical element of Buddhism is what Buddha called the Four Noble Truths.The First Noble Truth as related by Buddha is that suffering is unavoidable and universal to all beings.It is suffering that teaches us the lessons we need to learn to become enlightened.The Second Noble Truth reveals the root of that suffering; desire.Desires for things such as sex, wealth and power are what blind us to the true nature of reality.The Third N…
The Evolution of Childe Hassam: The "Impressionist in the West" Exhibit
Substantially inspired during his two excursions to Oregon and the surrounding area in 1904 and 1908, Childe Hassam, an American impressionist, masterfully depicted the scenic beauty of the Northwest in a collection of paintings displayed from December 10th, 2004 to March 6th, 2005 at the Portland Art Museum. Though the focus of the exhibit entitled "Childe Hassam: Impressionist in the West" is the artwork centered around Oregon, there is a larger, over-arching objective of presenting Hassam's evolution as an artist.
Born in Dorchester, MA in 1859 and trained in France, Hassam achieved what few artists live to experience: success and wealth. In the span of his lifetime, which ended in 1935, Child Hassam was a successful lithographer and painter. Summoned to the West by his friend, C.E.S. (Charles Erskine Scott) Wood, who has five works in the same exhibit, Hassam found a muse in the landscapes of Oregon, producing 60-100 works in a multitude of media ranging from watercolor and oil to pastel. Providing a complete context, the exhibit displays Hassam's early works that evidence early impressionistic techniques such as scattered brushstrokes and emphasis on lighting.
By showing the work the that preceded the Northwest paintings including subjects such as the bustling New York City streets, a solitary church with an oceanic background in the light of the sunset, and a mural of women bathing in the nude taken from C.E.S. Wood's home, one can observefirst hand how Hassam's work evolved from accurate, classical works to fully impressionistic ones that concentrated not on precision and perfection, but on color, motion, and texture.Hassam's interpretations of the Oregon desert are indeed nothing short of impressionistic splendor. of no particular interest or significance, such as a sagebrush, and breathing life int…